http://www.math.northwestern.edu/~ml...rs/physics.pdf is a VERY brief summary of physics. I haven't worked my way through it yet, but it seems to cover everything through World War 2, and some more recent topics as well.
If you haven't studied at least some calculus, however, it's gibberish. And unless you have at least two years of calculus, you're going to be guessing at a lot of the meaning. But it might be instructive even so, in one key takeaway, namely that ...
... real things about the world that can be measured are described largely in terms of intermediate mathematical constructs less directly connected to physical reality. Accept that, and you have experimental science with testable predictions, and all that other good stuff. But if you try to restrict science to being ONLY about directly-observable things, an immense fraction of scientific knowledge is disregarded.
And that's true even in a different sense than "A lot of the action is at very small scales that we can only 'observe' via readings made on very fancy instruments."